Kepler was born on December 27, 1571 in Weil der Stadt near Stuttgart in modern day Germany.
He worked as a maths teacher in Graz, Austria before becoming an assistant to astronomer Tyro Brahe and later the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his successors Matthias and Ferdinand II.
A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, Kepler is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion.
He died on November 15, 1630, aged 58.
What doodle shows?
The illustration shows the bearded German looking sternly toward the camera against the backdrop of a starry night sky.
The sun can be seen to the left of his head while a blue planet orbits both Kepler and the life-giving star beside him.